Benefits of Pharmacoeconomic Research
This module examines how pharmacoeconomic research can benefit all healthcare stakeholders, including third-party payers; pharmacy benefit management companies (PBMs); hospitals and other healthcare organizations; physicians; patients, their families, and employers; life science companies, and society as a whole. This module also explains the different perspectives these purchasers, providers, and patients may have regarding the objectives of pharmacoeconomic research.
Defining Pharmacoeconomic Costs and Consequences
This module examines the major costs and consequences, or outcomes, considered in pharmacoeconomic analyses, including how they are identified, selected, and measured for use in a given study.
Impact of Pharmacoeconomics on the Formulary
This module provides an overview of the P&T Committee: who its members are, what general guidelines the committee considers when planning a pharmacoeconomic study or evaluating an existing study, and how pharmaceutical sales professionals can best present pharmacoeconomic information to P&T Committees.
Outcomes Research and Management
To better understand what pharmacoeconomics is, it may help to view it in its larger research context: outcomes research, comparative effectiveness research (CER), pharmacoeconomics. Likewise, to better understand how pharmacoeconomics can improve healthcare delivery, it may help to view it in the larger context of outcomes management, and to see how it is applied to a subset of that discipline, disease management. This module provides that context, with a detailed look at outcomes research and comparative effectiveness research, and outcomes management, including disease management programs.
This module describes the five major types of pharmacoeconomic analyses: cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, cost-utility, cost-consequence, and cost-minimization. It also discusses the viewpoint of perspective in conducting pharmacoeconomic analyses.
Pharmacoeconomic Methods of Analysis
This module describes the key components, and the advantages and disadvantages, of the four most frequently used pharmacoeconomic methods of analysis:
• Cost-benefit analysis (CBA)
• Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA)
• Cost-minimization analysis (CMA)
• Cost-utility analysis (CUA)
This module discusses how the application of pharmacoeconomics can demonstrate the value of prescription drugs. It also discusses the role of the ECHO model in pharmacoeconomic outcomes research.
Pharmacoeconomics–Definition and Rationale
This module defines pharmacoeconomics, examines the need for pharmacoeconomic evaluation in light of growing prescription drug expenditures in the United States, and outlines the types of outcomes evaluated in pharmacoeconomic studies.
Structure of a Pharmacoeconomic Study
This module describes the basic structure of a true pharmacoeconomic study, as shown in the chart below, and explains the role of each of its necessary components.
Tools for Economic Evaluation
The tools discussed in this module make sense of data, provide theoretical constraints within a given set of assumptions or parameters, and provide a sense of order and certainty through mathematical and analytical processes. However, their predictability must be balanced against a broad understanding and perspective of the economic issue or problem being considered, and allowance must be made for unintended consequences.
Trends Influencing Pharmacoeconomic Research
Current trends that will influence the direction of pharmacoeconomic research discussed in this module include:
• More types of healthcare stakeholders are using pharmacoeconomic data, and for more varied purposes.
• More standards and guidelines for pharmacoeconomic studies are available, globally and nationally.
• Emerging technologies—notably specialty-drug biotechnologies, pharmacogenomics, and health information technologies—are providing new opportunities for, and challenges to, the use of pharmacoeconomics.
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