An Introduction to Urinary System Disorders
This module presents an overview of the various categories of urinary system disorders and includes a brief discussion of chronic kidney disease.
Anti-inflammatory Drugs Used in Urinary System Disorders
This module addresses the drugs that are used for their anti-inflammatory effects—corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
Antibacterial Drugs Used in Urinary Tract Infections
This module addresses the antibacterials. It looks at agents that treat specifically lower urinary tract infections (UTIs), and then discusses agents that can be used to treat upper as well as lower UTIs.
Autonomic Nervous System Drugs Used in Urinary System Disorders
This module provides a foundational review of the nervous system, then focuses on ANS drug classes that are of particular relevance to treating urinary disorders. They include cholinergic agonists, cholinergic antagonists (blockers), and alpha-adrenergic antagonists (blockers).
Cardiovascular Drugs Used in Urinary System Disorders
This module addresses the cardiovascular category. Chronic renal disease is often associated with hypertension and/or abnormalities in lipoprotein metabolism. Thus, drugs used to manage these conditions are important, not only to cardiologists, but also to clinicians who treat renal failure.
Clinical Procedures Used in Urology
Numerous tests and procedures are available to help clinicians assess renal function, diagnose urinary and renal disorders, determine appropriate treatments, and monitor response to treatment. This module discusses several commonly used practices.
Fluid-Electrolyte and Acid-Base Balance
This module discusses the substances and mechanisms involved in homeostasis.
Glomerulonephritis involves inflammation of the glomerulus. This module looks at its cause, distinguishes acute from chronic glomerulonephritis, and discusses treatment.
Miscellaneous Drugs Used in Urinary System Disorders
This module focuses on the miscellaneous classes and agents—those that do not belong to primary therapeutic drug categories.
Organs of the Urinary System
This module introduces you to the organs that comprise the upper and lower urinary tracts. It discusses the functions of the urinary system and explores the anatomy and physiology of each of organ—the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.
This module discusses renal calculi, which encompasses urolithiasis and nephrolithiasis. These are obstructive disorders of the urinary system that involve the presence of calculi (stones). The terminology used clinically varies with the location of the stone.
This module distinguishes among the various types of incontinence and describes available treatments.
Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)
This module distinguishes upper from lower urinary tract infections (UTIs), discusses what causes UTIs, describes their diagnosis and patient symptoms, and explains treatment approaches.
This module looks specifically at the three processes and events involved in urine formation—glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and tubular secretion. The figure illustrates these processes as they occur in the nephrons of the kidneys.
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